Procedure Material and damage Porcelain Earthenware Glass Related materials
For each assignment, the various options are discussed with the owner.
It is not possible over the phone
to give a quote, I have to see the object to be able to say something about it. If you send a photo (by email or whatsapp) I can give an indication. A quotation can also be made based on damage characteristics.
Afterwards it is possible to receive a treatment report. A restoration report includes: condition description, possible treatment methods, treatment, choice of materials, photos.
Treatments are carried out through the ethical code of the interest association for conservators,
Restorers in the Netherlands.
Click on the images for more.
Ceramic is fired clay. Porcelain is made of a pure white type of clay (kaolin) and fired high (up to about 1400 C). Pottery is made of dark (river) clay and fired at a lower temperature (up to approx. 1100 C). Stoneware is just in between. Porcelain can be recognized by the white, thin (often transparent) hard shard, also of the high sound when you touch it. Pottery has a thicker porous shard and more frequent damage to the edge (chips). The material characteristics of the object partly determine the choice of a particular restorative material.
Ceramics can show damage due to, among other things: physical damage (breakage) or poor manufacture (bad
adhesion of glaze to the shard). Bad restoration techniques have also often been used in the past
(wrong adhesive, wrong sandpaper will scratch, use of metal staples that are rusted). In the past, for example, tiles were often fixed on a wooden support. If the wrong glue is also used, damage can occur because the wood warps and too strong glue causes the earthenware tiles to crack. Salt damage is also common with tiles, where the glaze loosens from the substrate.
Objects for everyday use can have food discolorations, and in principle can be water or Acidic substances affect the decoration on ceramics.
Restoration can remove / reduce or prevent such phenomena. Cleaning with the right agents can remove annoying stains. The result depends on the type of damage and the ceramic material.
Simply put, glass is made from sand (silicon), soda (sodium oxide) and lime (calcium oxide). In Egypt and Mesopotamia started making glass as early as 2000 BC, and over the centuries there have been many changes. In the first century BC the first mouth-blown glass was developed in Syria, one revolution in itself.
Glass can break, but in principle it is actually a very strong material. Because one in the past wanted to make increasingly clearer glass, they improvised with the ingredients. This allowed glass to form which was clear but chemically very unstable. Glass disease is a consequence of this, it is not contagious, but has a devastating effect on the glass itself. The glass will "cry"; droplets on the surface, cracks, and may then look like a glass with a spider web of cracks. This process is not reversible, but can be prevented by taking the right preventive measures.
A special restoration epoxy is used for gluing porcelain. The glue is clear, chemically stable
and very strong. At the same time, it is also an adhesive that is reversible with the right means.
Small pieces that are missing are supplemented with this epoxy colored with pigments. With this beautifully limited method, only what is missing is unobtrusively supplemented. There is no retouching over the original surface, and it is possible to make a transparent fill. Especially with porcelain which is a little translucent, this works well. An object that has a crack has a different sound to you taps against it. This too can be remedied in many cases. Fault lines and additions can also be done with the airbrush can be retouched. A small part of the surface is then covered with paint around a lake invisible restoration.
Earthenware requires a different approach and choice of materials. A special adhesive is used to glue earthenware, it is
a very stable acrylic adhesive that is widely used in the museum world. The glue is less hard than epoxy and is better suited to pottery. Missing parts can be completed
and retouched, and cracks can be reinforced by impregnating with this adhesive.
The chips on the edge of an earthenware object belong to the object, and in most cases will remain unaffected. Somewhat larger chips/gaps can be filled in as to obtain a visually calm image.
The adhering of glass is done with different types of restoration epoxys. As the index of refraction of the adhesive matches that of the glass, a crack or break may disappear to the eye. The result depends on the type of glass and the type of damage. Small missing parts can be filled in so that it is less noticeable.